“I have been fortunate in having my own little place in filmland, with few other directors even attempting to give the public my kind of film story.”– Lois Weber
Lois Weber’s Story
Lois Weber was born on June 13, 1989, in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, to a middle-class Christian family of German descent. As a young woman, Weber volunteered with the Church Army, an evangelical and social justice organization, ministering to prostitutes and prisoners and people living in poverty.
Weber began her career in entertainment touring the U.S. as a singer and concert pianist, and in 1904, joined a theater company in New York. In 1908, Weber was hired to act in short silent films by American Gaumont, the U.S. branch of one of the premier French motion picture companies, run by silent film pioneers Herbert Blaché and Alice Guy Blaché. Under their mentorship, Weber went on to write and direct her own films at the studio.
During her theater career, Weber met her first husband, fellow actor Phillips Smalley, and together they became a leading filmmaking team. Engaged in what was then known as a companionate marriage, the couple moved out to Hollywood in 1912 to work for Universal Films Studio, where they wrote, acted, and co-directed a short film every week. When Universal City was incorporated the following year, Weber ran for public office on an all-female ticket, and was elected its first mayor.
In 1914, Weber became the first American woman to direct a full-length feature film with her adaptation of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice. In 1917, Weber became one of the first women to own her own film studio, and was involved with each aspect of her films — from writing, to set design, directing, and editing. She became the first and only female member of the Motion Pictures Directors Association, a forerunner to the Directors Guild of America, and the only female of the 250 founding members of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
Weber’s films were infused with the conviction that film could change culture and reach diverse audiences with messages of social justice. She tackled controversial subject matters, radical for the time, such as capital punishment, police violence, abortion, birth control, and poverty. Some of her films were box-office hits, others were censored or banned. Her 1915 film Hypocrites was both — banned in Chicago, Minneapolis and the state of Ohio due to the nudity it contained, it also sold out theaters across the country, and broke records for the highest-grossing film in Los Angeles, Detroit and New Orleans.
Weber directed over 135 films in her lifetime, only a fraction of which remain; many of them have either been lost, or have disintegrated and become impossible to watch. Weber’s remaining films are scattered in archives around the world, but a few have recently been restored (see Online Sources below for links to Weber’s films online).
Throughout her career, Weber was a mentor and advocate for women in the film industry, and by the end of her life, she was more well known as a talent scout than as a filmmaker, having helped many actresses reach stardom. Later in life, Weber also became involved in the visual education movement to use films in schools and teaching. She died on November 13, 1939, at the age of 60, and was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960.
Featured in the Film
A leading expert on women and early movie culture, Shelley Stamp is the author of Lois Weber in Early Hollywood, and Movie-Struck Girls: Women and Motion Picture Culture after the Nickelodeon. She is the curator of the award-winning disc collection Pioneers: First Women Filmmakers. Stamp is also Professor of Film & Digital Media at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where she holds the Presidential Chair. Her research has been funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, and a University of California President’s Fellowship. She is currently at work on a comprehensive history of Women and the Silent Screen in America, co-authored with Anne Morey.
Named by Variety Magazine as one of “10 Directors to Watch for 2020,” Radha Blank made her feature film directing debut with The 40-Year-Old Version. The film, which Blank wrote, produced, and starred in, won the U.S. Dramatic Directing Award at the 2020 Sundance Film Festival, and will make its debut on Netflix in the fall of 2020. Blank has written numerous plays, including HappyFlowerNail, Casket Sharp, nannyland and the critically acclaimed SEED. She was also a writer for the popular TV series The Get Down (Netflix), Empire (FOX) and She’s Gotta Have It (Netflix). When not writing for the stage and screen, Blank, a proud New York native, performs as RadhaMUSprime, whose brand of Hip-Hop Comedy, has sold-out shows from New York to Norway.
Lois Weber born
IN HISTORY: The Lumière brothers created the cinématographe
The first narrative film is made
Joined a touring production and met Phillips Smalley
IN HISTORY: Women’s suffrage passed in California
Universal Pictures founded in Los Angeles
Weber and Smalley moved to LA to work for Universal Films Studio
Weber elected the first mayor of Universal City
Weber became the first American woman to direct a feature film
Weber’s feature “Hypocrites” released
Weber’s “Where Are My Children?” released and banned in some states
Weber’s “The Dumb Girl of Portici” released
IN HISTORY: First technicolor film, “The Toll of the Sea,” released
Lois Weber Productions shut down and Weber divorced Smalley
Weber’s last film,“The Angel of Broadway,” released
Weber released her only talking picture, “White Heat”
IN HISTORY: Most Hollywood productions were shot in color
Weber was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
TIME’S UP founded by more than 300 women in entertainment